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Dvara Analysis Weblog | DVARA-IMN BOCW Collection



Dvara Analysis & India Migration Now


Inner migrants type a vital a part of the casual labour drive, primarily employed in development.[1]  The development sector in India employs roughly 51 million people and contributes to 9% of India’s GDP, making it one of the vital essential sectors of the Indian economic system. Nevertheless, the casual nature of labor on this sector renders its staff most weak.

To present social safety and secure working circumstances to staff, the Authorities of India enacted the Constructing and Different Building Employees’ (regulation of employment and circumstances of service) Act, 1996 (BoCW).[2] Below the BOCW Act, each state authorities is directed to arrange a state-level BOCW Board and BOCW Welfare Fund. Employers of development staff are required to pay the BOCW Cess, which facilitates the social safety advantages supplied by the BOCW Board.

The ambit of the Act covers many classes of staff – unskilled, semi-skilled, and expert, together with these inside supervisory, technical, or clerical roles. In the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, state governments had been requested to help development staff registered beneath the state BOCW Board by utilising the cess fund.[3] Whereas a number of states initiated the method of Direct Profit Transfers to registered staff, it continues to exclude a big proportion of the development workforce that isn’t registered and therefore unable to entry advantages beneath the BOCW Act.

Together with inadequacies in implementing the BOCW Act, there’s a want to grasp the position of all stakeholders concerned within the registration course of. Employers, contractors, unions, labour officers and different intermediaries can present proof for the exclusion development staff face within the registration and as beneficiaries.

Overview of Analysis Research

We labored to grasp the end-to-end journey to entry the entitlements beneath the BOCW Act. We centered on 4 districts of Maharashtra, a state with the best variety of interstate migrants in India.[4] The groups mapped out the beneficiaries’ exclusions confronted at totally different levels based mostly on the Dvara Analysis Exclusion Framework that outlines numerous axes and levels of exclusion in Direct Profit Transfers.[5] Our key analysis questions had been:

1. What are the varied entry-level obstacles that eligible[6] staff face whereas making an attempt to register themselves within the BOCW Welfare Board of Maharashtra?

2. What are the varied challenges that registered staff face whereas making an attempt to entry the entitlements beneath the BOCW Act in Maharashtra?

  • What are the particular challenges confronted by feminine migrant staff whereas making an attempt to entry the entitlements resulting from them beneath the BOCW Act in Maharashtra?
  • What are the challenges that stakeholders like civil society organisations, commerce unions, personal sector corporations and authorities representatives face when facilitating staff’ entry to the BOCW card in Maharashtra?

To reply these analysis questions, we carried out key informant interviews with development staff, trade companions and organisations in Maharashtra that facilitate staff’ BOCW registration.  We interviewed a complete of 56 staff by way of telephonic and in-person mode. The staff developed the interview information by way of a radical evaluation of the literature and previous subject expertise with development staff in Maharashtra. We carried out the in-person interviews of staff within the district of Thane by way of a subject go to to a labour Naka within the district. The research additionally concerned key informant interviews with 4 non-profit organisations and staff’ unions that function in Maharashtra, significantly within the Mumbai area. We recognized the organisations based mostly on their engagement with migrant staff in Maharashtra and their involvement within the BOCW registration for development staff. The organisations and unions interviewed had been concerned at a grassroots degree with staff within the unorganised sector, together with development staff who discover work at labour nakas – a colloquial time period for a labour junction.

This research goals to offer policymakers and researchers with a complete overview of the varied impediments that actors inside the BOCW ecosystem face. We hope that the research’s findings can information stakeholders to streamline the Act’s implementation.

On this collection’s subsequent set of weblog posts, we’ll present challenges and gaps within the BoCW Act implementation and spotlight the viewpoints of a number of stakeholders within the BoCW Act registration and repair supply.

[1] Kumar, S., & Fernandez, M. (2015). Urbanisation-Building-Migration Nexus in 5 cities in South Asia. LSE. Useful resource doc

[2] Building work, in response to Nationwide Industrial Classification, 2008, comes beneath 3 main classes –

  • Building of buildings,
  • Civil engineering works (roads, railways, utility initiatives), and 
  • Specialised development actions like demolition, website preparation, and set up actions.

[3] Press Belief of India, Ministry of Labour & Employment, 2020. Retrieved from Ministry of Labour & Employment

[4] Census of India (2011): Migration. Retrieved 8 March 2022, from:

[5] Retrieved from

[6] As per the Maharashtra BOCW welfare board, a employee is eligible if they’re between 18 to 60 years of age, have labored for greater than 90 days within the final 12 months in Maharashtra, have proof of residence, id and Aadhar card. Retrieved from

Cite this merchandise:


Dvara Analysis, I. M. (2022). DVARA-IMN BOCW Collection. Retrieved from Dvara Analysis.


Dvara Analysis, India Migration Now. “DVARA-IMN BOCW Collection.” 2022. Dvara Analysis.


Dvara Analysis, India Migration Now. 2022. “DVARA-IMN BOCW Collection.” Dvara Analysis.




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